Graphic: eu commission
New eu border security systems relied on billion-dollar, high-budget technology. But also "intelligence means" are used for pre-clearance activities
Denmark wants to push ahead with the european union’s rigid migration policy. The government in copenhagen currently holds the eu presidency and has set several corresponding priorities in its presidential program. In addition to the change of the schengen border code, the implementation of the "electronic entry and exit system" as well as the "program for privileged frequent travelers" operated. The eurosur border security system, which will cost hundreds of millions of euros, is particularly pleasing to the arms industry.
This spring, the danish government plans to launch a rough police mission with almost all member states to track down unwanted migrants. This "joint police operation" ("joint police operation" jpo) with several thousand police officers will operate under the name of balder and is expected to start in 16. To 22. April be held off.
Balder is a continuation of the former multi-day checks hermes, mitras and demeter (end of free movement in schengen area). Under the hungarian presidency in the first half of 2011, mitras ("migration, traffic and security") 22 eu member states participated. Most of the forces involved were regular police officers, i.E. Those who are already deployed on freeways, railroad stations or airports to combat migration. But there are also forces deployed specifically for the operation. The concrete operational plan for balder will remain secret as usual.
New police networks
The "joint police operations" have only been in vogue for two years and are organized by the respective eu presidency, which has a "coordination unit" forms. Results will be discussed in the eu council working group "law enforcement" evaluated. The threads of other, specialized police operations also converge here. For this purpose, several new police associations have been formed throughout the eu, including waterway police (aquapol), railroad police (railpol) and airport police (airpol). The aim of the measures is to "intelligence" on migration flows: border guards obtain statistical material that is used for forecasts.
Not only police forces of the member states are involved in the jpo: in addition to the border management agency frontex, gendarmerie units from some member states also take part. The crude, cross-border checks are controversial: they run counter to the schengen borders code, which authorizes the lifting of checks at internal borders. The text of the treaty also expressly forbids measures similar to the reintroduction of controls.
Nevertheless, internal border controls are temporarily introduced by individual member states, for example to prevent summit demonstrators from passing through or to control the influx to political meetings. Most recently, france, for example, carried out internal border controls lasting several days on the occasion of the g20 summit in november. Around 15.000 people entering the country from italy were affected, while 430 were denied onward travel.
Two years ago, the eu commission condemned this rampant practice and submitted a proposal to amend the schengen borders code to standardize the procedure. In the future, temporary border controls will only be possible if no member state vetoes them.
The governments of the 27 member states, however, are anything but amused by the commission’s proposal – even the german interior minister is concerned about the "national sovereignty". Denmark also decided last year to reinstate the posts at all borders. The decrease was described as a "customs control" trivialized, and was only taken back after strong protests. Vor diesem hintergrund ist es nicht unwahrscheinlich, wenn auch danemark den kommissionsvorschlag zum schengener grenzkodex torpediert.
"Intelligence-led approach" with drones and radar stations
Eurosur, the eu project for technology-supported migration defense, is also being pushed further under the danish council presidency (militarization of the mediterranean). In december, the commission presented a proposal for the establishment of a european border surveillance system, which was adopted in the 1. The project is to be discussed in the relevant council bodies in the second half of 2012.
Eurosur is to ensure control of the schengen area’s external borders as of 2014. Initially, eurosur will start with seven member states, but it is planned that also those countries will participate that have neither a sea nor a land border.
The system will be "new political instrument" advertised: the border surveillance authorities of all member states will be networked with each other and will exchange operational information. Auch nachrichtendienstliche erkenntnisse sollen beim aufspuren von fluchtlingen helfen. At the center of the network is the headquarters of the border management agency frontex in warsaw. Besides the improvement of the "situational awareness" in particular, it is intended to strengthen the response capability of frontex. This will force migrants to take increasingly risky routes.
Data from satellite reconnaissance, radar stations, aerial reconnaissance with aircraft and drones, as well as other sensors (border protection with satellite surveillance) will be integrated. Even satellite-based position data, such as from ship tracking systems and fisheries monitoring centers, is integrated. This is intended to provide information "near-real-time" to be exchanged.
The estimated costs for eurosur are considerable: according to the commission’s conservative estimates, 338.7 million euros will be spent by 2020 on the establishment, upgrading and maintenance of the national coordination centers and the frontex situation center. Should another option be favored by the european council, the costs would therefore be doubled.
Eurosur represents a paradigm shift in migration defense: the change from a "patrol approach" towards a "epistemological approach". This pre-clearance based on risk analysis is also gaining ground within other police agencies, including the eu’s criminal intelligence agency europol (who controls europol?). Also the above described "joint police operations" serve the "intelligence-led approach": the multi-day inspections are gathering statistical material for "risk analyses" of the eu border protection agency frontex in warsaw.
Other systems for "exact and reliable calculation"
Existing regional networks are also being used. Under spanish leadership, for instance, the technology-based "seahorse network atlantic" and the "seahorse network mediterranean sea" built up. In the baltic sea region, the "border control cooperation network coastnet" help to document unwanted border crossings. Similar cooperations will be established for the black sea region and land borders.
Neighboring third countries are to be integrated into eurosur. The cooperation at "joint border services" will be expanded accordingly. Already now some neighboring countries are involved in the european refugee defense. Frontex regularly concludes new cooperation agreements for this purpose, which, among other things, could have "national coordination centers" provide.
In its follow-up assessment, the eu commission itself comes to the conclusion that the exchange of information with third countries will have "have a significant negative impact on fundamental rights" could have. It is feared that the authorities will use the information obtained to criminalize individuals or groups, who may then be "victims of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment by the authorities" could be.
Militarized border protection is to be supplemented by database-based platforms: a "entry/exit system" (ees) is to "accurate and reliable calculation of authorized length of stay" . The old familiar "passport stamping" will be obsolete and replaced by an electronic register that records the date and place of all entries and exits. This is to avoid so-called "overstayer" identified, i.E. Those persons who stay longer in the eu than their visa specifies. Martially the commission talks about the ees as a "risk assessment on the front line".
At the same time "frequent travelers" will be able to buy the privilege of discreetly passing through border controls with machine-readable ids. The will to build this "program for registered frequent travelers" (rtp) was confirmed by the european council in the summer. Corresponding concrete proposals on ess and rtp are expected for the first general debate still under the danish presidency.
Excerpt from the flyer of the german federal police on the "automated border control
Biometrics-based border control in berlin and frankfurt
Several of the expected eu programs are already being researched by the federal police in model projects. Within a pilot program for "registered frequent travelers" are being tested at frankfurt/main airport the "automated biometrics-based border control" (abg) and the "automated border control system" (easypass) is being tested. For this purpose, the federal police had participated in the eu project until 2008 "biodevii" is involved, which was installed at berlin-tegel and berlin-schonefeld airports.
During "easypass" uses the facial image as a biometric feature, calculates "abg" the eye iris. The federal government refers to both biometric features as "suitable for automated procedures". At "abg" the average error rate is reported to be six percent, although this is "user misuse and or technical errors" are responsible for. The systems for automated border crossing are intended to shorten the control. The capture by means of "abg" lasts therefore as with "easypass" about 30 seconds. Platforms to the model airport cost 106 million euros per year.000 or. 73.000 euros.
Based on a study it commissioned itself in 2010, the european commission estimates that the development costs alone of the "entry/exit system" 183 million euros. The "program for registered frequent travelers" 207 million for the ees. In its answer to a minor question, the german government puts the annual operating costs for the ees at 88 million or. For the rtp with 101 million euros. In total, therefore, an impressive 1.3 billion euros are incurred – even though the number of the "overstayer" there is no relation to this. According to the federal government, in 2010 the federal police spent only 5.405 people found whose visa or. Residence permit had expired. Their number is already decreasing due to other arrests: five years earlier, there were 7.454.